Using wave-optics simulations, this paper defines what subaperture sampling effectively means for digital-holography applications involving atmospheric turbulence. Throughout, we consider the on-axis phase shifting recording geometry (PSRG) and off-axis PSRG, both with the effects of sensor noise. The results ultimately show that (1) insufficient subaperture sampling manifests as an efficiency loss that limits the achievable signal-to-noise ratio and field-estimated Strehl ratio; (2) digital-holography applications involving atmospheric turbulence require at least three focal-plane array (FPA) pixels per Fried coherence length to meet the Maréchal criterion; and (3) off-axis PSRG is a valid and efficient implementation with minor losses, as compared to on-axis PSRG. Such results will inform future research efforts on how to efficiently use the available FPA pixels.
Douglas E. Thornton, Matthias T. Banet, and Mark F. Spencer, "Subaperture sampling for digital-holography applications involving atmospheric turbulence," Appl. Opt. 60, G30-G39 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.427038
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