Doppler Processing for Satellite Navigation
Doppler processing was the principle of operation for the first satellite navigation system, Transit, that became operational in 1964 and was phased-out in 1996 . Its successor, the Global Positioning System (GPS) uses the principle of one-way ranging, which requires fewer satellites for a position solution compared to Doppler processing . In recent years, Doppler processing has been revisited for several applications, including precise velocity ; positioning with low earth orbit (LEO) satellites using carrier Doppler shift only ; combining signal-of-opportunity Doppler measurements from multiple LEO satellite constellations ; and solutions combining both pseudorange and Doppler measurements . This paper summarizes different Doppler processing techniques, performance as a function of geometry and error sources, and provides results for several examples ranging from computer models to actual observations from static and dynamic users.
2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS)
F. Van Graas, "Doppler Processing for Satellite Navigation," 2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Monterey, CA, USA, 2023, pp. 365-371, doi: 10.1109/PLANS53410.2023.10140011.