Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) are used to identify a Ti3+-Li+ complex in TiO2 crystals having the rutile structure. This defect consists of an interstitial Li+ ion adjacent to a substitutional Ti3+ ion (the unpaired electron on the Ti3+ ion provides charge compensation for the Li+ ion). The neutral Ti3+-Li+ complex is best described as a donor-bound small polaron and is similar in structure to the recently reported neutral fluorine and hydrogen donors in TiO2 (rutile). Lithium ions are diffused into the crystals at temperatures near 450 °C. Following the diffusion, an EPR spectrum containing groups of four closely spaced lines is observed at 36 K without laser illumination. ENDOR data verify that the four lines within each group are due to a weak hyperfine interaction with one lithium nucleus. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters are obtained from the angular dependence of the EPR spectra. Principal values are 1.9688, 1.9204, and 1.9323 for the g matrix and –2.14, –2.20, and +3.44 MHz for the 7Li hyperfine matrix.
Journal of Applied Physics
A. T. Brant, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton; Insertion of lithium ions into TiO2 (rutile) crystals: An electron paramagnetic resonance study of the Li-associated Ti3+ small polaron. Journal of Applied Physics 7 February 2013; 113 (5): 053712. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4790366