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Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption are used to characterize Cu2+ (3d9) and Cu3+ (3d8) ions in Cu-doped β-Ga2O3. These Cu ions are singly ionized acceptors and neutral acceptors, respectively (in semiconductor notation, they are Cu and Cu0 acceptors). Two distinct Cu2+ EPR spectra are observed in the as-grown crystals. We refer to them as Cu2+(A) and Cu2+(B). Spin-Hamiltonian parameters (a g matrix and a 63,65Cu hyperfine matrix) are obtained from the angular dependence of each spectrum. Additional electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments on Cu2+(A) ions give refined 63Cu and 65Cu hyperfine matrices and provide information about the nuclear electric quadrupole interactions. Our EPR results show that the Cu2+(A) ions occupy octahedral Ga sites with no nearby defect. The Cu2+(B) ions, also at octahedral Ga sites, have an adjacent defect, possibly an OH ion, an oxygen vacancy, or an H ion trapped within an oxygen vacancy. Exposing the crystals at room temperature to 275 nm light produces Cu3+ ions and reduces the number of Cu2+(A) and Cu2+(B) ions. The Cu3+ ions have an S = 1 EPR spectrum and are responsible for broad optical absorption bands peaking near 365, 422, 486, 599, and 696 nm. An analysis of loops observed in the Cu3+ EPR angular dependence gives 2.086 for the g value and 22.18, 3.31, and −25.49 GHz for the principal values of D (the fine-structure matrix). Thermal anneal studies above room temperature show that the Cu3+ ions decay and the Cu2+ ions recover between 75 and 375 °C.


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Journal of Applied Physics