Date of Award
Master of Science in Cyber Operations
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Barry E. Mullins, PhD
Smart devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) have transformed the management of personal and industrial spaces. Leveraging inexpensive computing, smart devices enable remote sensing and automated control over a diverse range of processes. Even as IoT devices provide numerous benefits, it is vital that their emerging security implications are studied. IoT device design typically focuses on cost efficiency and time to market, leading to limited built-in encryption, questionable supply chains, and poor data security. In a 2017 report, the United States Government Accountability Office recommended that the Department of Defense investigate the risks IoT devices pose to operations security, information leakage, and endangerment of senior leaders . Recent research has shown that it is possible to model a subject’s pattern-of-life through data leakage from Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Wi-Fi smart home devices . A key step in establishing pattern-of-life is the identification of the device types within the smart home. Device type is defined as the functional purpose of the IoT device, e.g., camera, lock, and plug. This research hypothesizes that machine learning algorithms can be used to accurately perform classification of smart home devices. To test this hypothesis, a Smart Home Environment (SHE) is built using a variety of commercially-available BLE and Wi-Fi devices. SHE produces actual smart device traffic that is used to create a dataset for machine learning classification. Six device types are included in SHE: door sensors, locks, and temperature sensors using BLE, and smart bulbs, cameras, and smart plugs using Wi-Fi. In addition, a device classification pipeline (DCP) is designed to collect and preprocess the wireless traffic, extract features, and produce tuned models for testing. K-nearest neighbors (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and random forests (RF) classifiers are built and tuned for experimental testing. During this experiment, the classifiers are tested on their ability to distinguish device types in a multiclass classification scheme. Classifier performance is evaluated using the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), mean recall, and mean precision metrics. Using all available features, the classifier with the best overall performance is the KNN classifier. The KNN classifier was able to identify BLE device types with an MCC of 0.55, a mean precision of 54%, and a mean recall of 64%, and Wi-Fi device types with an MCC of 0.71, a mean precision of 81%, and a mean recall of 81%. Experimental results provide support towards the hypothesis that machine learning can classify IoT device types to a high level of performance, but more work is necessary to build a more robust classifier.
DTIC Accession Number
Aragon, Angelito E. Jr., "Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Smart Home Device Classification" (2019). Theses and Dissertations. 2242.