In this work, a CCD-augmented complete angle scatter instrument (CASI) with a visible red laser source was used to measure the BRDF of a commercially available solar cell designed for small satellites, simultaneously capturing both in-plane and out-of-plane data with high angular resolution surrounding the specular direction. The measurements exhibited three distinct scatter features: a central specular peak, an offset specular peak, and a diffraction pattern. The two peaks were caused by different material surfaces with slightly different normal directions, and the diffraction pattern arose from periodically-spaced metal conducting bars running in one direction across the solar cell surface. The diffraction pattern measurements were verified in-plane with an original single-pixel CASI detector and then used to inform the creation of a single closed-form BRDF model capable of describing the out-of-plane features. Both specular peaks were modeled using a traditional microfacet formulation, but the offset peak model implemented a rotation of the incident and scatter directions to account for the difference in surface normal direction. The diffraction pattern–which is not typically described with microfacet models–was described based on Fraunhofer diffraction through two rectangular stripes, adjusted in terms of microfacet coordinates. Parameters for the model were chosen manually, based largely on physical material properties when possible, rather than using optimized fitting algorithms. Model results were compared to the measurements by using the same CCD pixel scatter coordinates. Qualitatively, the model successfully replicated the observed features, and quantitatively, the modeled peak values agree with the measurements within an order of magnitude. Abstract © 2021 OSA.
Todd V. Small, Samuel D. Butler, and Michael A. Marciniak, "Solar cell BRDF measurement and modeling with out-of-plane data," Opt. Express 29, 35501-35515 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.440190