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Background: US military Veterans returned from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) with symptoms associated with mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI; i.e., persistent post-concussive (PPC) symptoms] and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Interventions aimed at addressing symptoms associated with both physical and psychological stressors (e.g., PPC and PTSD symptoms) are needed. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a probiotic intervention, as well as to begin the process of evaluating potential biological outcomes.


Copyright © 2020 Brenner, Forster, Stearns-Yoder, Stamper, Hoisington, Brostow, Mealer, Wortzel, Postolache and Lowry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.



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Frontiers in Neurology