Network Formation Using Ant Colony Optimization
A significant area of research in the field of hybrid communications is the Network Design Problem (NDP) . The NDP is an NP complete problem  that focuses on identifying the optimal network topology for transmitting commodities between nodes, under constraints such as bandwidth, limited compatible directed channels, and link and commodity costs. The NDP focuses on designing a flexible network while trying to achieve optimal flow or routing. If a link (or arc) is used, then an associated fixed cost of the edge is incurred. In addition, there is a cost for using the arc depending on the flow. The solution is a network topology connecting all of the nodes that minimizes the total system cost.
Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm Intelligence. ANTS 2008. (LNCS 5217)
Oimoen S.C., Peterson G.L., Hopkinson K.M. (2008) Network Formation Using Ant Colony Optimization. In: Dorigo M., Birattari M., Blum C., Clerc M., Stützle T., Winfield A.F.T. (eds) Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm Intelligence. ANTS 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5217. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87527-7_47