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In this paper we present a design concept for 3D plasmonic scatterers as high- efficiency transmissive metasurface (MS) building blocks. A genetic algorithm (GA) routine partitions the faces of the walls inside an open cavity into a M x N grid of voxels which can be either covered with metal or left bare, and optimizes the distribution of metal coverage needed to generate electric and magnetic modes of equal strength with a targeted phase delay (Φt) at the design wavelength. Even though the electric and magnetic modes can be more complicated than typical low order modes, with their spectral overlap and equal strengths, they act as a Huygens source, with the accompanying low reflection magnitude. Square/hexagonal voxels inside square/rectangular cavities are thoroughly analyzed for operation at 8 µm, although the technique can be applied to different cavity geometries for operation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Results from full-wave simulations show the GA routine can repeatedly pinpoint scatterer geometries emitting at any Φt value across 2π phase space with transmittances of at least 60%, making these MS building blocks an attractive plasmonic alternative for practical optical applications. Full-scale metasurface devices are calculated from near-fields of the individual elements to validate the optical functionality.


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Funding notes: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (HR0011726711); Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Sandia National Laboratories.

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Optics Express