Carbon disulfide is the most popular material for applications of nonlinear optical (NLO) liquids, and is frequently used as a reference standard for NLO measurements. Although it has been the subject of many investigations, determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of CS2 has been incomplete. This is in part because of several strong mechanisms for nonlinear refraction (NLR), leading to a complex pulse width dependence. We expand upon the recently developed beam deflection technique, which we apply, along with degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan, to quantitatively characterize (in detail) the NLO response of CS2, over a broad temporal range, spanning 6 orders of magnitude (∼32 fs to 17 ns). The third-order response function, consisting of both nearly instantaneous bound-electronic and noninstantaneous nuclear contributions, along with the polarization and wavelength dependence from 390 to 1550 nm, is extracted from these measurements. This paper provides a self-consistent, quantitative picture of the third-order NLO response of liquid CS2, establishing it as an accurate reference material over this broad temporal and spectral range. These results allow prediction of the outcome of any NLR experiment on CS2.
Reichert, M., Hu, H., Ferdinandus, M. R., Seidel, M., Zhao, P., Ensley, T. R., … Van Stryland, E. W. (2014). Temporal, spectral, and polarization dependence of the nonlinear optical response of carbon disulfide. Optica, 1(6), 436. https://doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.1.000436