Document Type


Publication Date



Phase front modulation was previously used to refocus light after transmission through scattering media. This process has been adapted here to work in reflection. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator is used to conjugate the phase scattering properties of diffuse reflectors to produce a converging phase front just after reflection. The resultant focused spot had intensity enhancement values between 13 and 122 depending on the type of reflector. The intensity enhancement of more specular materials was greater in the specular region, while diffuse reflector materials achieved a greater enhancement in non-specular regions, facilitating non-mechanical steering of the focused spot. Scalar wave optics modeling corroborates the experimental results.


This is an open access article published by MDPI and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. CC BY 4.0

Sourced from the published version of record cited below.

Source Publication

Applied Sciences