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This paper develops a 3D vector solution for the scattering of partially coherent laser-beam illumination from statistically rough surfaces. Such a solution enables a rigorous comparison to the well-known Priest and Meier polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) [Opt Eng 41(5),988 (2002).]. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement for the normalized spectral density and the degree of polarization. Based on this agreement, the 3D vector solution also enables an extension to the Priest and Meier pBRDF that accounts for the effects of active illumination. In particular, the 3D vector solution enables the development of a closed-form expression for the spectral degree of coherence. This expression provides a gauge for the average speckle size based on the spatial-coherence properties of the laser source. Such an extension is of broad interest to long-range applications that deal with speckle phenomena.


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Optics Express

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