In this paper, we study the behaviors of spatiotemporal optical vortex (STOV) beams propagating in linear dispersive media. Starting with the Fresnel diffraction integral, we derive a closed-form expression for the STOV field at any propagation distance z in a general second-order dispersive medium. We compare our general result to special cases published in the literature and examine the characteristics of higher-order STOV beams propagating in dispersive materials by varying parameters of the medium and source-plane STOV field. We validate our analysis by comparing theoretical predictions to numerical computations of a higher-order STOV beam propagating through fused silica, where we model the index of refraction with the corresponding Sellmeier equation.
Physical Review A
Hyde, M. W., & Porras, M. A. (2023). Propagation of spatiotemporal optical vortex beams in linear, second-order dispersive media. Physical Review A, 108(1), 013519. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.108.013519