Cadmium germanium diphosphide (CdGeP2) crystals, with versatile terahertz-generating properties, belong to the chalcopyrite family of nonlinear optical materials. Other widely investigated members of this family are ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2. The room-temperature absorption edge of CdGeP2 is near 1.72 eV (720 nm). Cadmium vacancies, phosphorous vacancies, and germanium-on-cadmium antisites are present in as-grown CdGeP2 crystals. These unintentional intrinsic point defects are best studied below room temperature with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption. Prior to exposure to light, the defects are in charge states that have no unpaired spins. Illuminating a CdGeP2 crystal with 700 or 850 nm light while being held below 120 K produces singly ionized acceptors (VCd−) and singly ionized donors (GeCd+), as electrons move from VCd2− vacancies to GeCd2+ antisites. These defects become thermally unstable and return to their doubly ionized charge states in the 150–190 K range. In contrast, neutral phosphorous vacancies (VP0) are only produced with near-band-edge light when the crystal is held near or below 18 K. The VP0 donors are unstable at these lower temperatures and return to the singly ionized VP+ charge state when the light is removed. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the VCd− acceptors and VP0 donors are extracted from the angular dependence of their EPR spectra. Exposure at low-temperature to near-band-edge light also introduces broad optical absorption bands peaking near 756 and 1050 nm. A consistent picture of intrinsic defects in II-IV-P2 chalcopyrites emerges when the present CdGeP2 results are combined with earlier results from ZnGeP2, ZnSiP2, and CdSiP2.
Journal of Applied Physics
Gustafson, T. D., Giles, N. C., Schunemann, P. G., Zawilski, K. T., Averett, K. L., Slagle, J. E., & Halliburton, L. E. (2023). Intrinsic point defects (vacancies and antisites) in CdGeP2 crystals. Journal of Applied Physics, 133(24), 245703. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0156144