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This work supports a technical cradle-to-grave protection strategy aimed at extending the useful lifespan of Critical Infrastructure (CI) elements. This is done by improving mid-life operational protection measures through integration of reliable physical (PHY) layer security mechanisms. The goal is to improve existing protection that is heavily reliant on higher-layer mechanisms that are commonly targeted by cyberattack. Relative to prior device ID discrimination works, results herein reinforce the exploitability of constellation-based PHY layer features and the ability for those features to be practically implemented to enhance CI security. Prior work is extended by formalizing a device ID verification process that enables rogue device detection demonstration under physical access attack conditions that include unauthorized devices mimicking bit-level credentials of authorized network devices. The work transitions from distance-based to probability-based measures of similarity derived from empirical Multivariate Normal Probability Density Function (MVNPDF) statistics of multiple discriminant analysis radio frequency fingerprint projections. Demonstration results for Constellation-Based Distinct Native Attribute (CB-DNA) fingerprinting of WirelessHART adapters from two manufacturers includes 1) average cross-class percent correct classification of %C > 90% across 28 different networks comprised of six authorized devices, and 2) average rogue rejection rate of 83.4% ≤ RRR ≤ 99.9% based on two held-out devices serving as attacking rogue devices for each network (a total of 120 individual rogue attacks). Using the MVNPDF measure proved most effective and yielded nearly 12% RRR improvement over a Euclidean distance measure.


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Computers and Security