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Reliable detection of counterfeit electronic, electrical, and electromechanical devices within critical information and communications technology systems ensures that operational integrity and resiliency are maintained. Counterfeit detection extends the device’s service life that spans manufacture and pre-installation to removal and disposition activity. This is addressed here using Distinct Native Attribute (DNA) fingerprinting while considering the effects of sub-Nyquist sampling on DNA-based discrimination. The sub-Nyquist sampled signals were obtained using factor-of-205 decimation on Nyquist-compliant WirelessHART response signals. The DNA is extracted from actively stimulated responses of eight commercial WirelessHART adapters and metrics introduced to characterize classifier performance. Adverse effects of sub-Nyquist decimation on active DNA fingerprinting are first demonstrated using a Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) classifier. Relative to Nyquist feature performance, MDA sub-Nyquist performance included decreases in classification of %CΔ ≈ 35.2% and counterfeit detection of %CDRΔ ≈ 36.9% at SNR = −9 dB. Benefits of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) processing are demonstrated and include a majority of this degradation being recovered. This includes an increase of %CΔ ≈ 26.2% at SNR = −9 dB and average CNN counterfeit detection, precision, and recall rates all exceeding 90%.


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Electronics (MDPI)