Emission time-of-flight (TOF) profiles have been obtained using gated imagery to further the process control during the pulsed laser deposition of the high temperature superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7−x. An intensified charge coupled device array was used to obtain a sequence of plume images at 10ns temporal resolution and 0.2mm spatial resolution. Plume imagery is transformed to TOF profiles and pulse-to-pulse variations removed using physically based smoothing techniques. Comparison with non-imaging sensors establishes excellent agreement, with systematic uncertainties in streaming speed and temperatures of less than 15% and 8%, respectively. The resulting streaming speeds of 0.4–1.2×106 cm/s and characteristic temperatures of 20000–200000K are characterized across the full plume. This new imaging TOF technique enables the monitoring of the complete evolution of speed distributions. Indeed, significant deviations from the forward-directed Maxwellian speed distributions are observed.
Review of Scientific Instruments
Carl J. Druffner, Glen P. Perram, Rand R. Biggers; Time-of-flight emission profiles of the entire plume using fast imaging during pulsed laser deposition of YBa2Cu3O7−x . Rev Sci Instrum 1 September 2005; 76 (9): 093101. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2018503