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Barium gallium selenide (BaGa4Se7) is a recently developed nonlinear optical material with a transmission window extending from 470 nm to 17 μm. A primary application of these crystals is the production of tunable mid-infrared laser beams via optical parametric oscillation. Unintentional point defects, such as selenium vacancies, cation vacancies (barium and/or gallium), and trace amounts of transition-metal ions, are present in BaGa4Se7 crystals and may adversely affect device performance. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption are used to identify and characterize these defects. Five distinct EPR spectra, each representing an electron trapped at a selenium vacancy, are observed at low temperature (there are seven crystallographically inequivalent selenium sites in the crystal). One spectrum is stable at room temperature and is present before illumination. The other four are produced at lower temperatures with 532 nm laser light and are thermally unstable at room temperature. Each S = 1/2 singly ionized selenium vacancy has a large, nearly isotropic, hyperfine interaction with 69Ga and 71Ga nuclei at one neighboring Ga site. A significant portion of the unpaired spin resides in a 4s orbital on this adjacent Ga ion and gives principal values of the hyperfine matrices in the 3350–6400 MHz range. Broad photoinduced optical absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared are assigned to the selenium vacancies.


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This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. This article appeared in Journal of Applied Physics 130, 173104 as fully cited below and may be found at DOI: 10.1063/5.0067667.

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Journal of Applied Physics