With the increasing cost and decreasing availability of 3He, there have been many efforts to find alternative neutron detection materials. Lithium calcium aluminum fluoride (LiCAF) enriched to 95% 6Li doped with europium was evaluated here as a replacement material for 3He. Wafers 0.5 cm thick, consisting of LiCAF crystals in a rubberized matrix, were embedded with wavelength shifting fibers (WSF) and mated to silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) to measure the photon response in a flux of neutrons from a DD neutron generator. Excellent discrimination was realized between neutrons and gammas, and both pulse-height discrimination and pulse-shape analysis were explored. A Figure of Merit (FoM) of 1.03 was achieved. By applying pulse-shape analysis, a simple neutron count output was generated by utilizing a low-pass filter to suppress fast pulses from the SiPM output and subsequently applying a threshold to the remaining signal. Custom electronics were built to bias the SiPMs, then amplify, filter, discriminate, and digitize the LiCAF/WSF scintillation photons, resulting in a digital pulse that can easily be counted with any microcontroller or field programmable gate array. A significant advantage of LiCAF is that it can be fabricated into any shape/size (when embedded in a rubberized matrix), and the light output and transparency is sufficient to allow for thicker scintillators which enable detection of both thermal and epithermal neutrons. This work demonstrated that Eu:LiCAF is capable of discriminating gammas from neutrons and is a potential replacement material for 3He, especially for nuclear security applications and neutron spectroscopy.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Ford, Michael A., et al. “Evaluation of Eu:LiCAF for Neutron Detection Utilizing SiPMs and Portable Electronics.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 908, Nov. 2018, pp. 110–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2018.08.016