Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Environmental Engineering and Science


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

Eric G. Mbonimpa, PhD


Energy security, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and geopolitical concerns in the south pacific require diversification and independence from legacy energy sources in the Indo-Pacific Combatant Command (INDOPACOM) area of operation (AO). The United States Government has placed mandates and directives to minimize the impacts of GHG on the climate. These orders require divestment from GHG producing fuel sources by 2050. This study compares the energy alternates to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP8) as Ammonia, Hydrogen, and Lithium-ion Batteries. The study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools to determine the environmental impacts of various energy candidates in the South Pacific. These results are used in a Decision Analysis (DA) model concerning the alternates attributes of environmental impacts, production capacity, production costs, logistical burned, mass and energy density and integration capability. The results for the LCA showed that JP8 was the most impactful alternative overall and the most sever hazards come from energy alternatives using photo-voltaic energy in production. The DA results indicated that JP8 is currently the most suitable energy alternative. However, Hydrogen closely followed JP8 in performance and with weighting outperformed. Hydrogen produced on Naval vessels with nuclear pressure water reactors is a highly competitive and viable alternative to JP8.

AFIT Designator



A 12-month embargo was observed.

Approved for public release: 88ABW-2023-0265