Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and infrared absorption are used to detect Ir4+ ions in β-Ga2O3 crystals. Mg and Fe doped crystals are investigated, and concentrations of Ir4+ ions greater than 1 × 1018 cm−3 are observed. The source of the unintentional deep iridium donors is the crucible used to grow the crystal. In the Mg-doped crystals, the Ir4+ ions provide compensation for the singly ionized Mg acceptors and thus contribute to the difficulties in producing p-type behavior. The Ir4+ ions replace Ga3+ ions at the Ga(2) sites, with the six oxygen neighbors forming a distorted octahedron. A large spin-orbit coupling causes these Ir4+ ions to have a low-spin (5d5, S = 1/2) ground state. The EPR spectrum consists of one broad line with a significant angular dependence. Principal values of the g matrix are 2.662, 1.815, and 0.541 (with principal axes near the crystal a, b, and c directions, respectively). Ionizing radiation at 77 K decreases the Ir4+ EPR signal in Mg-doped crystals and increases the signal in Fe-doped crystals. In addition to the EPR spectrum, the Ir4+ ions have an infrared absorption band representing a d-d transition within the t2g orbitals. At room temperature, this band peaks near 5153 cm−1 (1.94 μm) and has a width of 17 cm−1. The band is highly polarized: its intensity is maximum when the electric field E is parallel to the b direction in the crystal and is nearly zero when E is along the c direction.
Journal of Applied Physics
C.A. Lenyk, N.C. Giles, E.M. Scherrer, B.E. Kananen, L.E. Halliburton, K.T. Stevens, G.K. Foundos, J.D. Blevins, D.L. Dorsey, and S. Mou, J. Appl. Phys. 125, 045703 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5081825