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In this paper, we study the use of digital holography in the on-axis phase-shifting recording geometry for the purposes of deep-turbulence wavefront sensing. In particular, we develop closed-form expressions for the field-estimated Strehl ratio and signal-to-noise ratio for three separate phase-shifting strategies—the four-, three-, and two-step methods. These closed-form expressions compare favorably with our detailed wave-optics simulations, which propagate a point-source beacon through deep-turbulence conditions, model digital holography with noise, and calculate the Monte Carlo averages associated with increasing turbulence strengths and decreasing focal-plane array sampling. Overall, the results show the four-step method is the most efficient phase-shifting strategy and deep-turbulence conditions only degrade performance with respect to insufficient focal-plane array sampling and low signal-to-noise ratios. The results also show the strong reference beam from the local oscillator provided by digital holography greatly improves performance by tens of decibels when compared with the self-referencing interferometer.


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Applied Optics