Recent advances in convex optimization have led to new strides in the phase retrieval problem over finite-dimensional vector spaces. However, certain fundamental questions remain: What sorts of measurement vectors uniquely determine every signal up to a global phase factor, and how many are needed to do so? Furthermore, which measurement ensembles lend stability? This paper presents several results that address each of these questions. We begin by characterizing injectivity, and we identify that the complement property is indeed a necessary condition in the complex case. We then pose a conjecture that 4M-4 generic measurement vectors are both necessary and sufficient for injectivity in M dimensions, and we prove this conjecture in the special cases where M=2,3. Next, we shift our attention to stability, both in the worst and average cases. Here, we characterize worst-case stability in the real case by introducing a numerical version of the complement property. This new property bears some resemblance to the restricted isometry property of compressed sensing and can be used to derive a sharp lower Lipschitz bound on the intensity measurement mapping. Localized frames are shown to lack this property (suggesting instability), whereas Gaussian random measurements are shown to satisfy this property with high probability. We conclude by presenting results that use a stochastic noise model in both the real and complex cases, and we leverage Cramer-Rao lower bounds to identify stability with stronger versions of the injectivity characterizations.
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
Bandeira, A. S., Cahill, J., Mixon, D. G., & Nelson, A. A. (2014). Saving phase: Injectivity and stability for phase retrieval. Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 37(1), 106–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acha.2013.10.002