Extending existing scalar Schell-model source work, we derive the M2 factor for a general electromagnetic or vector Schell-model source to assess beam quality. In particular, we compute the M2 factors for two vector Schell-model sources found in the literature. We then describe how to synthesize vector Schell-model beams in terms of specified, desired M2 and present Monte Carlo simulation results to validate our analysis.
M. W. Hyde and M. F. Spencer, “M2 factor of a vector Schell-model beam,” Opt. Eng. 58(07), 1 (2019) [doi:10.1117/1.OE.58.7.074101].