Extending existing scalar Schell-model source work, we derive the M2 factor for a general electromagnetic or vector Schell-model source to assess beam quality. In particular, we compute the M2 factors for two vector Schell-model sources found in the literature. We then describe how to synthesize vector Schell-model beams in terms of specified, desired M2 and present Monte Carlo simulation results to validate our analysis.
Hyde, Milo W. IV and Spencer, Mark F., "M2 Factor of a Vector Schell-Model Beam" (2019). Faculty Publications. 116.