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Statistical GNSS-RO measurements of phase and amplitude scintillation are analyzed at the mid-latitudes in the local summer for a 100 km altitude. These conditions are known to contain frequent sporadic-E, and the S4-σϕ trends provide insight into the statistical distributions of the sporadic-E parameters. Joint two-dimensional S4-σϕ histograms are presented, showing roughly linear trends until the S4 saturates near 0.8. To interpret the measurements and understand the sporadic-E contributions, 10,000 simulations of RO signals perturbed by sporadic-E layers are performed using length, intensity, and vertical thickness distributions from previous studies, with the assumption that the sporadic-E layer acts as a Gaussian lens. Many of the key trends observed in the measurement histograms are present in the simulations, providing a key for understanding the complex mapping between layer characteristics and impacts on the GNSS-RO signals. Additionally, the inclusion of Kolmogorov turbulence and a diffusion-limited threshold on the lens strength/(vertical thickness)2 ratio helps to make the layers more physically realistic and improves agreement with the observations.


Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0 International).



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