An equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a type of optimal packing of lines in Euclidean space. They are often represented as the columns of a short, fat matrix. In certain applications we want this matrix to be flat, that is, have the property that all of its entries have modulus one. In particular, real flat ETFs are equivalent to self-complementary binary codes that achieve the Grey-Rankin bound. Some flat ETFs are (complex) Hadamard ETFs, meaning they arise by extracting rows from a (complex) Hadamard matrix. These include harmonic ETFs, which are obtained by extracting the rows of a character table that correspond to a difference set in the underlying finite abelian group. In this paper, we give some new results about flat ETFs. One of these results gives an explicit Naimark complement for all Steiner ETFs, which in turn implies that all Kirkman ETFs are possibly-complex Hadamard ETFs. This in particular produces a new infinite family of real flat ETFs. Another result establishes an equivalence between real flat ETFs and certain types of quasi-symmetric designs, resulting in a new infinite family of such designs.
Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
Fickus, M., Jasper, J., Mixon, D. G., & Peterson, J. D. (2021). Hadamard Equiangular Tight Frames. Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 50, 281–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acha.2019.08.003