Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Industrial Hygiene


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

Robert M. Eninger, PhD.


The purpose of this research was to characterize jet fuel combustion emissions (JFCE) in an occupational setting. Prior research demonstrated that aircraft emit hazardous species, especially at engine start-up and ground idle. Complaints of eye, nose, and throat irritation from occupational exposures near aircraft exist. In this study JFCE were tested during an aeromedical evacuation engines running patient onload (ERO) on a C-130 Hercules at the 179th Airlift Wing, Mansfield-Lahm Air National Guard. Ultrafine particles, VOC, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfuric acid, and metals were sampled simultaneously in approximate crew and patient breathing zones. Testing methods were portable condensation particle counters (CPC), polycarbonate filters (PC) and thermophoretic samplers (TPS) for electron microscopy, MultiRae® gas monitors, EPA methods TO-17 and TO-11, and NIOSH methods N0600, N7908, N7300. Ultrafine particulate matter, VOC including EPA HAPs, formaldehyde, CO, and unburned jet fuel were detected. Particles were dominated by soot that was predominantly carbonaceous with trace oxygen, sulfur and few metals in concentrations up to 3.4E+06 particles/cc. Particle size distributions were varied with most sizes less than 100 nanometers (nm). Particle morphology was highly irregular. VOC were detected in ppb, and formaldehyde in ppm. Additive or synergistic effects are suspected and may intensify irritation. Health implications from inhaling nano-sized soot particles are inconclusive.

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DTIC Accession Number