Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Engineering Physics

First Advisor

Benjamin R. Kowash, PhD.


Scandium-47 (T1/2=3.41d) forms stable complexes with aminopolycarboxylic acids, useful as tumor biomarkers or antigens. Its therapeutic beta emissions at 441.1 keV and 600.5 keV are coupled with an imageable 159.4 keV gamma to permit in vivo-tracking of compound biodistribution. Currently, its wider clinical application is hindered by lack of availability, even as interest grows in radioscandium-based pharmaceuticals. We have investigated the Ti-47(n,np)Sc-47, 50Ti(n,3p) Sc-47,V-nat(n,x)Sc-47, and Ti-nat(n,x)Sc-47 reactions as potential routes to therapeutically relevant quantities of Sc-47. Targets of V-nat, Ti-nat and enriched Ti-47 (95.7% isotopic abundnace) and Ti-50 (83.1%) oxide targets were exposed to the spallation neutrons resulting from the proton-irradiation of RbCl and Ga targets at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Isotope Production Facility (IPF). Radioisotopic purities of 47Sc in excess of 90% are achieved by activation of Ti-47 targets with an instantaneous production rate of 0.29±0.03 micro-Ci/g per Ah, and small yields of Ca-47 produce Sc-47 with 100% purity from activation of Ti-50.

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