Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

Michael L. Shelley, PhD


Under the Clean Water Act Section 404 of 1972 and 33 CFR 320-330 and 40 CFR 230 moderate the destruction of wetlands by the Air Force to make way for other uses. To obtain a permit for a design or construction project which affects a wetland, the Air Force must agree to create new wetlands, or replace lost wetland acreage through wetland creation or restoration. The Air Force is interested in building 'successful' wetlands as inexpensively as possible. It has been common practice to use hydric soil, which often had to be hauled in, as the substrate at the restored site to ensure vegetative success of the site. However, this project constructed a fen (wetland) 32m x lS.5m to experimentally compare the impact on vegetation of unsorted gravel till substrate versus hydric soil substrate. A fen is a groundwater driven wetland with a circumneutral pH and little to no standing water. Initial indicate that the hydric soil did better support vegetation, but the gravel substrate was functional. The vegetation on the gravel substrate is expected to catch up to that on the soil substrate in time.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number