Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Operational Sciences

First Advisor

Jack A. Jackson, PhD


In response to the increased influence of space forces on today's battlefield, several theater level models were analyzed for the presentation of space forces. These models were the Extended Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM), the Joint Theater Level Simulation (JTLS), the Integrated Theater Engagement Model (ITEM), the Tactical Warfare Model (TACWAR), Thunder, Janus, and the Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol (ALSP). While ALSP is not a model but a simulation protocol connecting various models, it was studied because it appears to be the future of modeling. The consensus of the analysis was that space forces are virtually ignored by most of the models and when space was considered, the dynamic nature of the systems involved were not captured. The Air Force Cornmand Exercise System (ACES) was chosen to determine how the effects of space forces can be implemented into theater level models. ACES is a discrete event combat simulation designed to support intermediate and senior service schools in teaching Air Force doctrine within the context of a theater warfare exercise. Its primary focus is to allow specific educational goals to be taught. This research focused on both the present modeling of space forces within widely used theater level models and a methodology to incorporate space forces into models that lack the influence of space. The Gulf War exposed how important functions performed from space can be to the success of a combat forces. Because of the practicality of space's influence, a picture of today's battlefield that does not include space forces is incomplete.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number