Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Environmental Engineering and Science


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

John E. Stubbs, PhD


Legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exist in the form of aqueous film-forming foams within hangar fire suppression systems throughout the country, posing a threat to both surrounding environments as well as local populations. The United States (US) Department of Defense (DoD), in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is investigating best practices to flush out existing contaminants prior to disposal and replacement with a less environmentally harmful replacement. While current procedures dictate a triple rinse of the entire system to yield contaminant levels acceptable to the DoD, the practice has never truly been tested. Designed as a tool to understand movement of drinking water within distribution systems, EPANET software can be used to model a contaminant’s fate through a series of pipes reminiscent of a hangar fire suppression system and can thus simulate legacy PFAS transport from origin tank to expulsion emitters. Its hydraulic modeling and water quality modeling features make it ideal for this endeavor, and the results produced provide further support for the triple rinse’s hypothesized six-log reduction of the chemical contaminant.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number