Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Operational Sciences

First Advisor

Stephen M. Swartz, PhD


Recently, organizations have been modifying performance appraisal systems to collect data from multiple sources to guide the development of supervisors. Upward feedback programs focus on development rather than appraisal by supplementing traditional downward feedback with subordinate feedback. The upward feedback instrument developed in this study was designed to measure effective leadership behaviors utilizing an existing five-dimension leadership taxonomy and a new dimension that represents creating a fun workplace. The developed instrument and a proven commercial instrument utilizing the same theoretical framework were administered to samples of N = 391 and N = 417 respectively, and tested for reliability and validity. Scale reliability of both instruments was assessed utilizing internal reliability and test-retest analysis. The validity of the commercial instrument was assessed using factor analysis, and the developed instrument validity was assessed using nested model confirmatory factor analysis. The instruments were compared using correlational analysis. Results for the commercial instrument provided limited support for the instrument s external validity. Results for the developed instrument provided limited support for the instrument s ability to validly measure effective leadership behaviors and, limited support for a distinct Have Fun dimension. The instruments scales were generally highly correlated.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number