Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

James Lott, PhD


Due to the small scale of MEMS devices, the inherent residual stresses during the deposition processes can affect the functionality and reliability of the fabricated devices. Residual stress often causes device failure due to curling, buckling, or fracture. Currently, few techniques are available to measure the residual stress in MEMS devices. In this dissertation, Raman spectroscopy is used to measure and monitor the residual and induced stresses in MUMPs polysilicon MEMS devices. Raman spectroscopy was selected since it is nondestructive, fast, and provides potential in situ stress monitoring. Raman spectroscopy scans on unreleased and released MEMS fixed-fixed beams, cantilevers, and micromirror flexures were performed to obtain residual stress profiles. The profiles are compared to analytical models to assess the accuracy of Raman spectroscopy. I performed post-processing thermal anneals, phosphorous diffusions and phosphorous ion implantations to characterize the residual stress changes within MEMS devices. From post-processing experiments, the Raman residual stress profiles on MUMPs structures indicate a stress reduction by over 90%, which is verified with on-chip test structures. The reduced residual stress levels can improve the performance, reliability, and yield of the MEMS devices as they become smaller. In addition, I present the first Raman stress measurements in III-V MEMS.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number