Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Computer Engineering


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Rusty O. Baldwin, PhD


This research examines energy and error tradeoffs in Anchor-Free Range-Aware Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Localization algorithms. A concurrent and an incremental algorithm (Anchor Free Localization (AFL) and Map Growing) are examined under varying network sizes, densities, deployments, and range errors. Despite current expectations, even the most expensive configurations do not expend significant battery life (at most 0.4%), implying little energy can be conserved during localization. Due to refinement, AFL is twice as accurate, using 6 times the communication. For both, node degree affects communication most. As degree increases, Map Growing communication increases, while AFL transmissions drop. Nodes with more neighbors refine quicker with fewer messages. At high degree, many nodes receive the same message, overpowering the previous effect, and raising AFL received bits. Built from simulation data, the Energy Consumption Model predicts energy usage of incremental and concurrent algorithms used in networks with varying size, density, and deployments. It is applied to current wireless sensor nodes. Military WSNs should be flexible, cheap, and long lasting. Anchor-Free, Range-Aware algorithms best fit this need.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number