Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Engineering Physics

First Advisor

Michael A. Marciniak, PhD


The fabrication of photonic crystals (PhC) with photonic band gaps (PBG) in the visible range is a difficult task due to the small structural feature sizes of the PhC. The particular type of PhC examined is a two-dimensional (2-D) triangular structure with a PBG designed for visible wavelengths with applications in visible integrated photonic systems. This work examines the processes involved and viability of fabricating 2-D triangular PhC's by a variety of techniques: focused ion beam, electron lithography and holographic photo-polymerization/lithography. The design of the PhC was based on a program created to display gap maps for triangular structures. The PBG of the structure designed from the gap maps was then modeled using another program created to display band diagrams for triangular PhC structures. The fabrication techniques and materials used to create the PhC in part determine the characterization technique required to investigate the PBG. Techniques used here include the coupling of a beam by means of a prism into a wave-guiding medium and edge firing. Two commercial FDTD modeling programs were evaluated. Finally, FDTD modeling and simulation results are compared to the design and experimental results. Experimental techniques and results, along with modeling and simulation results, will be discussed.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number