Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

Ellen C. England, PhD


Natural runoff processes have been altered by urban development; impervious surfaces (rooftops, highways, parking areas) and their associated storm water systems channel runoff from a vast area into one concentrated outflow. This storm water runoff can cause erosion, flooding, landslides, and significant damage to aquatic ecosystems. Runoff from highways and parking areas has also been known to contain high levels of suspended solids, heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Porous pavements allow infiltration of water through typically impervious surfaces, reducing storm water volumes and acting as a pollutant filtration system. Since there is currently no methodology for Air Force decision-makers to compare conventional and porous pavements, a model was created using Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) to evaluate different paving options. Four porous paving alternatives were compared against two conventional paving alternatives at three separate geographic locations. These alternatives were scored using a total of 12 evaluation measures that were identified as important to the pavement selection process. Structural turf was found to be the best option for northern tier locations, while conventional asphalt was the best choice for central and southern areas. VFT was also shown to be an effective methodology for comparing conventional and porous paving alternatives, objectively weighing economic costs against environmental considerations.

AFIT Designator


DTIC Accession Number