Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Department of Systems Engineering and Management

First Advisor

Torrey J. Wagner, PhD


The purpose of this research was to investigate the total life-cycle cost of using utility-scale battery systems to increase the energy efficiency of forward operating bases, thereby reducing the burden of diesel fuel logistics. Specifically, this thesis answered three research questions addressing optimal sizing for various battery types connected with photovoltaic grids, logistical parameters directly impacting total cost, and the cost of increasing the energy resilience of the network. The research questions were answered through a review of literature, modeling, and data analysis. The model determines an optimal size and area for a Vanadium redox flow, Lithium-ion, or Lead-acid battery system, combined with a photovoltaic array, over 5, 10, and 20 years. The optimal Lead-acid battery system was the least expensive, with a 20-year lifecycle system of 142.1 MWh battery and 30.9-acre photovoltaic array costing $13.1M per year. However, after including transportation costs, operations and maintenance, and salvage values, Lithium-ion and Vanadium flow appear to be more cost effective. With a 20-year life-cycle, Lithium-ion and Vanadium redox flow batteries were the most cost-effective option, for the theoretically modeled Alpha forward operating base, with an equivalent annual cost of $24.1M per year and $24.8M per year, respectively. When excluding salvage value from the total cost, both systems cost $25.2M per year and $25.7M per year, respectively. Lead-acid costs for 20 years were $28.4M per year. A breakdown of all costs associated with the final value of each battery system is included in the results. Recommendations on implementation of a battery-photovoltaic system on a forward operating base are discussed. Shortfalls of each technology are also discussed.

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